Tuesday, 23 February 2010
March 12, 1993 - A series of bomb blasts, planted by Muslim underworld figures, rock the country's commercial capital of
February 14, 1998 - 46 persons were killed and more than 200 injured when 13 blasts ripped through
December 24-31, 1999 – Pakistani militants hijack an Indian Airlines flight from Kathmandu to
December 22, 2000 - Lashkar-e-Taiba militants attack the Red Fort in
October 1, 2001 - At least 21 people killed in a suicide bomb explosion and gunfire at the assembly in
December 13, 2001 - Heavily armed Islamic militant group opened fire in Parliament complex, killing several people in an unprecedented attack on the seat of power in the world's biggest democracy.
January 22, 2002 - Four people were killed in an attack on the
March 30, 2002 - Seven Hindus killed in an attack by Islamic militants on the
May 14, 2002 - More than 30 army men were killed in a terrorist attack on an Army camp near
September 24, 2002 - 35 people were killed when 2 Lashkar-e-Taiba militants attacked the Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar,
December 2, 2002 - Two persons were killed and 31 injured in a powerful explosion in a bus outside the crowded Ghatkopar railway station in Mumbai. Students Islamic Movement of India was suspected to be behind the blasts
December 6, 2002 - Twenty-five people were injured in a bomb blast by members of the Students Islamic Movement of India at McDonalds fast food restaurant at Mumbai Central railway station. The bomb was planted in the airconditioner duct. It was suspected to be a crude bomb.
January 27, 2003 - At least 30 people were injured when a bomb planted on a bicycle went off throwing splinters of sharp nails outside Vile Parle railway station in Mumbai. Members of SIMI were found to be behind the attack.
March 13, 2003 - A powerful bomb blast shattered a bogie of a local train at Mulund railway station in Mumbai during peak hours killing 11 people and injuring more than 65. This was the most powerful serial explosion.
August 23, 2003 - Two bombings at the Gateway of India and the Mumba Devi temple in Mumbai killed 52, injured 167. Terrorists from Lashkar-e-Taiba and the Students Islamic Movement of India were found to be behind the attacks.
July 28, 2003 - Bus blast kills 3 and injures 31 others in Mumbai. Pakistani intelligence agency: ISI and members of the Students Islamic Movement of India were found to be behind the blast.
July 5, 2005 - Five Bangladeshi terrorists, trained by the Jaish-e-Mohammad, attacked the Ram Janmabhumi in Ayodhya, all 5 killed, 1 civilian died.
October 29, 2005 - 67 people were killed and 224 injured in serial bombings in major
March 7, 2006 - At least 20 persons were killed and over 101 injured when two blasts rocked
June 1, 2006 - Three heavily armed terrorists were killed in an encounter with the police when they tried to drive through the security cordon guarding the RSS headquarters in
July 11, 2006 - Seven explosions ripped through crowded commuter trains and stations in Mumbai, killing at least 200 people and leaving 700 more bloodied and injured. Lashkar-e-Taiba and local Students Islamic Movement of
history of Muhammad and the history of Islam comes primarily from Muslim historians and the Qur'an (Koran) itself
|Qur'an / Koran itself||Abu Dawud (sunnah)(A.D. 832?)|
|Quote from Imam Muhammad Baqir (676-743 AD) about Imam Mahdi||Tirmidhi (A.D. 892)|
|Ibn Ishaq (A.D. 768)||Tabari (A.D. 929)|
|Ulmar al-Waqidi of Medina (A.D. 822)||Zamakhshari (A.D.1144)|
|Abd al-Malik ibn Hisham (A.D. 828)|
Baidawi (A.D. 1292)
|Ibn Sa'd (A.D. 845)||Ibn Kathir (A.D. 1301-1372)|
|Ahmad ibn Hanbal (A.D. 855)||Ibn Khaldun (A.D. 1332-1406)|
|Amr ibn Sharhabil (Caliph 717-20 AD)||Imam al-Mawawy|
|al-Bukhari (A.D. 810-870)||Sahih al-Bukbari|
|Ibn Hazam (A.D. 994-1064)|
Wednesday, 10 February 2010
Violence has peaked in India from Maoist or Naxalite separatist violence being more dangerous to India's national security, as declared by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
From the Ministry of Home Affairs it has been stated that:
- 1996: 156 deaths
- 1997: 428 deaths
- 1998: 270 deaths
- 1999: 363 deaths
- 2000: 50 deaths
- 2001: 100+ deaths
- 2002: 140 deaths
- 2003: 451 deaths
- 2004: 500+ deaths
- 2005: 892 deaths
- 2006: 749 deaths
- 2007: (as of September 30, 2007) 384 deaths (related to Naxalite insurgency)
- 2009: Naxalites separatists struck at the first phase of elections on 16 April, 2009 in Bihar, Chattisgarh and Jharkhand killing 18 civilians and security forces. Later, on 23 April, 2009, they also struck in the second phase of polling in Jamshedpur and surrounding areas in Jharkhand injuring several member of the polling party. May 2009: 16 police die in suspected Maoist attack
Naxalite or Naxalvadis (name from the village of Naxalbari in the Indian state of West Bengal where the movement originated), are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to formation of Communist Party of India (Marxist- Leninist). Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In recent years, they have spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist). They lead the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. As of 2009, Naxalites are active across approximately 220 districts in twenty states of India accounting for about 40 percent of India's geographical area, They are especially concentrated in an area known as the "Red corridor", where they control 92,000 square kilometers. According to India's intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing, 20,000 armed cadre Naxalites were operating apart from 50,000 regular cadres working in their various mass organizations and millions of sympathisers, their growing influence prompted Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to declare them as the most serious internal threat to India's national security.The Naxalites are opposed by virtually all mainstream Indian political groups.. In February 2009, Central government announced its plans for simultaneous, co-ordinated counter-operations in all Left-wing extremism-hit states—Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, to plug all possible escape routes of Naxalites.
The term Naxalites comes from Naxalbari, a small village in West Bengal, where an extremist section of Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) led by Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal led a violent uprising in 1967, trying to develop a "revolutionary opposition" in opposition to the CPI(M) leadership. The insurrection started on May 25, 1967 in Naxalbari village when a farmer was attacked over a land dispute. Maoists in the guise of farmers retaliated by attacking the local landlords and escalated the violence. Majumdar greatly admired Mao Zedong, and advocated that Indian peasants and lower classes follow in his footsteps and overthrow the government and upper classes whom he held responsible for their plight. He strengthened the Naxalite movement through his writings, the most famous being the 'Historic Eight Documents' which formed the basis of Naxalite ideology. In 1967 'Naxalites' organized the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR), and later broke away from CPI(M). Violent 'uprisings' were organized in several parts of the country. In 1969 AICCCR gave birth to Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML)).
Practically all Naxalite groups trace their origin to the CPI(ML). A separate tendency from the beginning was the Maoist Communist Centre, which evolved out of the Dakshin Desh-group. MCC later fused with People's War Group to form Communist Party of India (Maoist). A third tendency is that of the Andhra revolutionary communists, which was mainly presented by UCCRI(ML), following the mass line legacy of T. Nagi Reddy. That tendency broke with AICCCR at an early stage.
During the 1970s the movement was fragmented into several disputing factions. By 1980 it was estimated that around 30 Naxalite groups were active, with a combined membership of 30,000. A 2004 home ministry estimate puts numbers at that time as "9,300 hardcore underground cadre… [holding] around 6,500 regular weapons beside a large number of unlicensed country-made arms".According to Judith Vidal-Hall (2006), "More recent figures put the strength of the movement at 15,000, and claim the guerrillas control an estimated one fifth of India's forests, as well as being active in 160 of the country's 604 administrative districts." India's Research and Analysis Wing, believed in 2006 that 20,000 Naxals are currently involved in the growing insurgency.
Today some groups have become legal organisations participating in parliamentary elections, such as Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation. Others, such as Communist Party of India (Maoist) and Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Janashakti, are engaged in armed guerrilla struggles.
|Dates of operation||1990 - Present|
|Leader||Hafiz Muhammad Saeed|
|Motives||Integration of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan after ending Indian rule in the state & propagation of pan-Islamism in South Asia|
|Active region(s)||India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh|
|Major actions||Suicide attacks, massacre of non-Muslim civilians, attacks on security forces|
|Notable attacks||Jammu & Kashmir attacks; November 2008 Mumbai attacks (attributed to LeT members)|
|Status||Designated U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organization by U.S. (26 Dec 2001); Banned in U.K. (2001); Banned in Pakistan (2002); Related Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (JUD) party banned by U.S. (2006), sanctioned by the U.N. (2008)|